Sports Medicine Research: In the Lab & In the Field (Sports Med Res)

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Wednesday, May 22, 2019

It’s Not Boys Being Boys on College Campus: Males in Fraternities and Sports More Likely to Commit Sexual Assaults Than Their Peers

Is campus rape primarily a serial or one-time problem? Evidence from a multicampus study

Foubert JD, Clark-Taylor A, Wall AF. Violence Against Women. 2019, 1-16. DOI: 10.1177/1077801219833820

Warning: This post includes sensitive information on sexual assault in the athletic community.

Take Home Message: Nine in 10 alcohol-involved sexual assaults on college campuses are committed by serial perpetrators. Men in fraternities and athletics are more likely to commit this crime than other college-aged men.

Social activities that include alcohol are often seen as a right of passage for many college-aged students. Unfortunately, alcohol use, especially high-risk drinking behaviors, plays a major role in sexual violence. Furthermore, male student-athletes and fraternity members are more likely to commit sexual assault against women than their peers. To develop an efficient strategy to address alcohol-involved sexual assault on college campuses it is critical to understand how prevalent it is and who is involved on today’s campuses. Hence, the authors aimed to use data from the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey, which captured data from 49 community and 4-year colleges in a Midwestern state to address 5 questions:
Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Mental Health in Elite Athletes: International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement (2019)

Mental health in elite athletes: International Olympic Committee consensus statement (2019)

Reardon CL, Hainline B, Aron CM, Baron D, Baum AL, Bindra A, Budgett R, Campriani N, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Currie A, Derevensky JL, Glick ID, Gorczynski P, Gouttebarge V, Grandner MA, Han DH, McDuff D, Mountjoy M, Polat A, Purcell R, Putukian M, Rice S, Sills A, Stull T, Swartz L, Zhu LJ, Engebretsen L. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Jun;53(11):667-699. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2019-100715.

“To advance a more standardised, evidence based approach to mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, an International Olympic Committee Consensus Work Group critically evaluated the current state of science and provided recommendations.” After a brief introduction and methods, the authors describe the general prevalence of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, general approaches to the management of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes (e.g., psychotherapy, pharmacological treatment), specific mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, major stressors and key environmental factors that influence elite athlete mental health, and special considerations for mental health in Paralympic athletes.


Additional Readings:
Monday, May 20, 2019

Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) Position Statement: Principles of Mental Health in Competitive and High-Performance Sport

Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) Position Statement: Principles of Mental Health in Competitive and High-Performance Sport.

Van Slingerland KJ, Durand-Bush N, Bradley L, Goldfield G, Archambault R, Smith D, Edwards C, Delenardo S, Taylor S, Werthner P, Kenttä G. Clin J Sport Med. 2019 May;29(3):173-180. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000665.

The Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport released a position statement on “mental health in competitive and high-performance sport in Canada, presenting solutions to current challenges and laying a foundation for a unified address of mental health by the Canadian sport community.” The document includes a glossary of key terms, review of literature, methodology, and 6 principles, which include multiple secondary comments that offer greater guidance.

Wednesday, May 15, 2019

The Heat is On - But Many States Are Leaving Us Out in the Cold

The Association between Mandated Preseason Heat Acclimatization Guidelines and Exertional Heat Illness during Preseason High School American Football Practices

Kerr ZY, Reigster-Mihalik JK, Pryor RR, Pierpoint LA, Scareno SE, Adams WM, Kucera KL, Casa DJ, & Marshall SW.  Environ Health Perspect. 2019; 127(4).  DOI: 10.1289/EHP4163  

Take Home Message: Mandating the use of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) “acclimatization” guidelines in high school football is related to fewer athletes experiencing exercise-induced heat illness. 

The authors of the 2009 NATA-IATF “acclimatization” guidelines aimed to reduce exertional heat illnesses, which include heat stroke, heat syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat edema. Some state high school athletic associations have implemented these guidelines, yet the effectiveness of these guidelines is unknown.  Kerr and his colleagues assessed the relationship between state high school athletic associations adopting the NATA-IATF guidelines and the rate of exertional heat illnesses among high school students during preseason American football practices.
Monday, May 13, 2019

2018 International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection: Research Priorities from the General Assembly Questions

2018 International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection: Research Priorities from the General Assembly Questions

Schwarz EM, Parvizi J, Gehrke T, Aiyer A, Battenberg A, Brown SA, Callaghan JJ, Citak M, Egol K, Garrigues GE, Ghert M, Goswami K, Green A, Hammound S, Kates SL, McLaren AC, Mont MA, Namdari S, Obremskey WT, O'Toole R, Raikin S, Restrepo C, Ricciardi B, Saeed K, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Shohat N, Tan T, Thirukumaran CP, Winters B. J Orthop Res. 2019 May;37(5):997-1006. doi: 10.1002/jor.24293. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

A research workgroup was assembled from the 2nd International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection to “provide broad audience guidance on the controversies and major unmet needs in the field of” musculoskeletal infections. Major topics include…
  • Developing a Functional Definition of “Acute” Versus “Chronic” Bone and ImplantRelated Infection
  • Host Immunity, Immunotherapy and Immunoprophylaxis, and Cessation of Immunosuppressive Therapy
  • The Use of Antibiotics for Musculoskeletal Infections
  • Diagnosing Musculoskeletal Infections
  • Modifiable Factors
Wednesday, May 8, 2019

Let’s Chat: 1 in 8 Patients Are Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis within 5 Years of an ACL Reconstruction

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis diagnosed within 5 years following ACL reconstruction

Bodkin SG, Werner BC, Slater LV, and Hart JM. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2019. [Epub Ahead of Print].

Take Home Message: Almost 1 in 8 patients seek medical care and are diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis within 5 years of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture can lead to long-term changes in joint health and greatly affect an person’s short- and long-term quality of life. However, most studies have relied on sending surveys or inviting former patients back for an evaluation. Few studies have used large samples of healthcare data to identify people who are diagnosed with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and seeking medical care. Therefore, Bodkin and colleagues completed an analysis of a national insurance-based, for-fee database of patient records to calculate the incidence of osteoarthritis following an ACL reconstruction and examine the risk factors related with osteoarthritis development.
Monday, May 6, 2019

An Evaluation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measure Usage in Secondary School ATs

The Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Secondary School Athletic Trainers' Perceptions, Practices, and Barriers.

Coulombe BJ, Games KE, Eberman LE; J Athl Train. 2019 Feb;54(2):142-151. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-86-17. Epub 2018 Aug 10.
Take Home Message: Many secondary school athletic trainers viewed patient-reported outcomes as beneficial; however, skip using them because of time constraints (e.g., time to fill-out, score, or analyze).

A clinician can use patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to assess how a patient perceives their symptoms, function, and rehabilitation progress. PROs are an essential way to inform how patient-centered care is provided after an injury. Unfortunately, clinicians, especially secondary school athletic trainers, may skip using PROs for many reasons. Understanding how and why a secondary school athletic trainer uses PROs may lead to strategies to promote the use of PROs. Hence, the authors used a web-based survey to evaluate the views that exist regarding the application, benefits, and problems associated with implementing PROs in the clinical practice of secondary school athletic trainers.