Acute Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Hip Dynamic Range of Motion During Instep Kicking in Professional Soccer Players.
Amiri-Khorasani M, Abu Osman NA, Yusof A. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 June 25(6):1647-52.
The range of motion available at a joint is crucial to athletic performance. There are many methods of stretching, but the two most popular types are static (stretching the muscle to its end range and holding for a duration) and dynamic (stretching during a sports-specific motion). Stretching has been demonstrated to increase joint range of motion when measured statically but very few studies have evaluated the influence of stretching on range of motion during functional sport tasks. Amiri-Khorasani and colleagues assessed the influence of static and dynamic stretching on dynamic range of motion (DROM) of the hip during instep kicking among 18 professional Iran Première league soccer players with no past medical history of lower extremity injury. Each participant performed 3 different warm-up protocols (static, dynamic, and no stretching) on 3 nonconsecutive days, at least 72 hours after either competition or hard physical training. Participants were divided into 3 groups which performed the stretches in different orders (for example one group performed static stretching on day 1 while another group performed dynamic stretching on day 1). Each day’s warm-up consisted of jogging (4 minutes), stretching (which varied each day), rest (2 minutes), and 5 soccer instep kicks. Stretches were performed bilaterally on multiple muscle groups (e.g., gastrocnemius, hamstrings, hip flexors). During instep kicking, participants were given a starting point to limit frontal plane movement, and asked to kick a ball 11 m towards a 2 X 2 m target. Reflective markers and motion analysis cameras measured hip DROM during the kick. The authors found significant differences in DROM during the forward phase of kicking, the follow-through phase, as well as during whole phases in the dynamic stretching group compared to the static stretching group. No differences between stretches were found during the backswing phase. In brief, dynamic stretching increased DROM relative to no stretching and more so than static stretches.
This study presents a very interesting case for the implementation of dynamic stretching in warm-ups. Implementing dynamic stretches into warm-up also makes sense since it can be sport specific.  The study was also interesting because it assessed the benefits of dynamic stretching during sport specific tasks.  Hopefully, more studies will pursue this model to evaluate the influence of dynamic stretching on performance.  While current literature demonstrates the benefits of dynamic stretching, clinical implementation of dynamic stretching protocols, will be much more challenging. Not only will clinicians be required to educate their patients but proper education of coaches will also be critical. Do you deal with this in your practice? Have you attempted to implement any dynamic stretching into your athlete’s warm up? How have your athlete’s responded? Have you seen a decrease in injuries? Furthermore, what strategies did you use, or tried, to educate others such as coaches to the benefits of dynamic stretching?
Written by: Kyle Harris
Reviewed by: Jeffrey Driban

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